The Acropolis Hill, so called the "Sacred Rock" of Athens, is the most important site of the city. During Perikles' Golden Age, ancient Greek civilization was represented in an ideal way on the hill and some of the architectural masterpieces of the period were erected on its ground. The first habitation remains on the Acropolis date from the Neolithic period. Over the centuries, the rocky hill was continiously used either as a cult place or as a residential area or both. The inscriptions on the numerous and precious offerings to the sanctuary of Athena (marble korai, bronze and clay statuettes and vases) indicate that the cult of the city's patron goddess was established as early as the Archaic period (650-480 b.C.)
During the classical period (450-330 b.C.) three important temples were erected on the ruins of earlier ones: the Parthenon, the Erechtheion and the temple of Nike, dedicated to Athena Parthenos, Athena Polias and Athena-Apteros Nike, respectively.